Making of Handmade rugs at our Factory in India
The wool to be used for rug weaving goes through following process before designs on rug are drawn. These are:
- Washing and Drying of the wool
- Dyeing / Coloring
Washing and Drying of the wool:
The wool to be used for rug weaving carries dust, grease which has to be removed and it is done by thoroughly washing and drying in the sun for 2-3 days.
It is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermxes fibres to produce a continuous web. It breaks up locks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers to be parallel with each other. This process ensures that the fiber strands flow smoothly while spinning. This process is also used to blend different wools.
The carded wool is spun on a Charkha or the spinning wheel to produce the yarn. The thickness of the yarn depends on the quality of the rug and usually a 3 ply yarn is used.
Dyeing / Coloring:
Wool to be used for carpet weaving is dyed using various dyes and chemicals like mordant dyes, vat dyes, sulphuric acid, soda ash, cabinet or carrier type dyes.
Drawing the Design on a graph paper:
After dyeing the wool with required colors, the designing process is followed. The designs are drawn on graph paper with proper measurements, so that it appears more accurate on the carpet. Each square on the graph represents a knot.
Warping to Trimming:
Once the designs are decided and drawn, the wrapping i.e. arranging of the yarn for lengthwise weaving and finally knotting, weaving and then trimming of the rug is done.
Wrapping is arranging of the yarn so that it runs lengthwise in weaving. Twisted thread is used for fine and exact weaves and jute is also used for rougher patterns. In warping operation, all the warps for the rug weaving are brought to the thick iron rod and then transferred to a thin steel rod. Then it is folded and taken to the loom for mounting on the loom and the process of weaving is carried out
Knotting and Weaving:
In this process the pile yarn is introduced into the rug by tying knots. Depending on size of the rug, one or more weavers work on a loom. The number of knots is around 60-200 knots per square inch. Higher the quality of the rug, greater is the number of knots per square inch. The graphic designs that are drawn on a graph are instructed by a map reader or another weaver to the weavers knotting the rug. Tying of these knots is a skilled job and each weaver ties knots row after row speedily with great dexterity. Two types of knots tied are:
a) Ghiordes or Turkish knot and
b) Sehna or Persian knot.
Insertion of any type of knot is done in such a manner that the tuft lies at an acute angle to the back. The weaver can choose from the large number of different tufts to give a variety of patterns and colors to his rug and he thus creates an unparallel work of art. Tools used for weaving are scissors, iron rods, levers and comb beaters.
The finished rug is taken from loom and trimming is done for proper designs and patterns.
Chemical Finishing or Washing:
The finished weaved rug is then goes for washing i.e. Chemical Finishing. Washing removes dust, fine particles, swelling of fibers, soft fibre and finally, the required softness and luster are achieved. Washing is done with water mixed with soap, bleaching powder and other natural chemicals. Washed rug is dried in sunlight for 4-5 days.
Latexing and Finishing:
After washing latexing is done along with final touches.
Rear part of the rug is covered with rubber so that it gets longevity and durability.
The final look of a rug comes after clipping and chemical finishing. The art of clipping reflects on the finish in the final rug. Rugs are given finishing touches by re-trimming, brushing, steaming and stretching. The intention is to bring the woven fabric in level at the surface.
Quality Checking & Packing:
Every rug is carefully inspected for uniformity of color, type and quality of material used, piles per inch, height and strength of the pile etc. After quality checking the rug is rolled and wrapped separately in polythene sheets and finally wrapped with jute fabric, PP or Hessian cloth and sewn.